The first crash of skateboarding came about due to inferior product, too much inventory and a public upset by reckless riding. The manufacturers were so busy making product that little was done in the way of research and development. Although some companies developed better quality wheels, clay wheels were the cheapest to manufacturer. However, clay wheels did not grip the road well and skaters fell everywhere. Cities started to ban skateboards in response to health and safety concerns and after a few fatal accidents, skateboarding was drummed out of existance (for the time being at least!). Manufacturers like Vita Pakt and Makaha lost enormous amounts of money due to canceled orders for the Christmas season.
Over the next eight years, skateboarding remained fairly underground, showing up only in areas like Santa Monica, California. During this period Larry Stevenson invented the kicktail and tried to resurrect skateboarding but he met with only a small amount of success.
The Second Generation 第二代滑板
In 1970, Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of urethane. The improvement in traction and performance was so immense that popularity of skateboarding started to rise rapidly again. With the growing interest companies started to invest more in product development and many companies started to manufacture trucks (axles) especially designed for skateboarding. As the equipment became more maneuverable the decks started to get wider, reaching widths of 10 inches and over in the end, thus giving the skateboarder even more control. Manufacturers started to experiment with more exotic composites, like fiberglass and aluminum but the common skateboards were made of maple plywood. The skateboarders took advantage of the improved handling of their skateboards and started inventing new tricks. Skateboarders, most notably the Z-Boys, started to skate the vertical walls of swimming pools that were left empty in the 1976 California drought. This started the vert trend in skateboarding. With increased control, various skateboarders could skate faster and perform more dangerous tricks, such as slash grinds and backside airs. This caused liability concerns and increased insurance costs to skatepark owners. Many skateparks went out of business and the parks were torn down or bulldozed. By the end of 1980, skateboarding had died again.
The Third Generation 第三代滑板
The third skateboard generation, from the early eighties to early nineties, was started by skateboard companies that actively promoted their art. The focus was initially on half-pipe and vert ramp skateboarding. The invention of the no-hands aerial (later known as the ollie) by Alan Gelfand in 1978 made it possible for skaters to perform huge airs off vertical ramps. With vert skating being dominant, decks were initially very wide with large and wide wheels, though as time progressed and skateparks became fewer in number, street skating gained popularity, causing a change in both deck shape and wheel size. Street skating became skateboarding's most popular form. Mark Gonzales pioneered street skating and was the first person to ollie up a curb and to clear a set of stairs. Manufacturers preferred maple plywood over more exotic composite materials almost exclusively, and concave decks became ubiquitous. The third skateboarding generation was nearly killed by the global economical recession in the early nineties.