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滑板运动——年轻无极限

来源: 时间:2008-03-11 18:05:12
  
  The Current Generation 当代滑板
  The size and shape of the fourth and current generation of skateboards is dominated by one trick: the ollie. Most boards are about 7 1/4 to 8 inches wide and 30 to 32 inches long. The wheels have an extremely hard durometer (approximately 99) so that they will slide better during grind and slide tricks. Additionally, very high durometers offer the benefit of reduced drag on hard surfaces, resulting in an overall faster ride. The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards will rotate more easily during flip tricks. In the early 1990s, Dave McGann began the first professional urethane wheel company also known as SpitFire. Today, modern wheels are currently around 50 to 58mm in diameter and advances in technology have made them extremely light compared to the wheels of the eighties. The decks are still almost always constructed out of Canadian Maple, with 7-plys being the industry standard for strength and durability. Interest in high technology materials has increased slightly as the cost of manufacturing them has dropped.
  
  Trick Skating 滑板技巧
  With the evolution of skateparks and ramp riding, the skateboard began to change. Early skate tricks consisted mainly of two-dimensional maneuvers (e.g. riding on only the front wheels (nose manual), spinning like an ice skater on the back wheels (a 360 pivot), high jumping over a bar, long jumping from one board to another (often over fearless teenagers lying on their backs), slalom, etc.) Around 1978, street riding became transformed by the invention of the ollie, the first modern skateboarding trick, by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand. An ollie is performed by pressing down quickly on the back of a skateboard, and controlling the resulting upward motion of the skateboard with the skater's front foot. This results in the skateboarder, along with his/her skateboard, lifting into the air. At first, none of Gelfand's companions believed it was possible to perform a feat like this, and they thought he was attaching his feet to the board somehow. The trick was reinvented by Rodney Mullen in the 80's, being transferred to the horizontal plane and used as a trick for freestyle skating (a style of skating popular in the seventies and eighties based on stationary maneuvers). (Rodney Mullen also invented the kickflip.) No longer is the trick simply to fly from one place to another. On the way the board can twist and flip, as can the rider. The development of these complex tricks by Rodney Mullen and others transformed skateboarding. Skateboarding went from being performed only on the street to the vertical tops of the half pipes (and other terrain like huge stairs and handrails). The act of "ollieing" onto a rail or pole, and sliding along it on the trucks of the board, is known as grinding and has become a mainstay of modern skateboarding.
  
  Skaters and Social Groups 滑板族
  Ever since the (1990s) a significant amount of skateboarders, commonly known as "skaters," have been categorized into their own social group. Though they have always existed, it wasn't until relatively recently that skaters broke free of the common "punk rocker" or "stoner" stereotypes and came to be seen as their own subculture, with their own fashion, slang, and music. The popularity of skate shoes and clothing has led to a corresponding increase of so-called "Posers" (US), people who adopt the look of skateboarding culture without a dedication to skateboarding itself. This act of "posing" actually is a concern of many skaters, and displeases them. It has become a habit of many teen age skaters to insult bad skaters by calling them posers.
  
  More 其它
  To some, skateboarding is more than just flashy tricks, crazy stunts and baggy pants that hang dangerously low. The art scrawled on the underbelly of the deck is, to many, a way to illustrate the theory of the sport.
  
  Sean Cliver, artist, skater and writer, recently organized the pop-culture influences into the new book "Disposable: A History of Skateboard Art."
  
  "I'd always been into art, mostly drawing birds and animals, but then I started doing 'Star Wars' and goofy 'Dungeons and Dragons' crap in the latter stages of elementary school," Cliver said.
  
  Key words
  extreme sports 极限运动
  artform n. 艺术形式
  milk crate 一种用硬塑料制成的盒子
  dismantle v. 拆除
  maneuver v. 操纵,运用
  drum out 驱逐;轰走
  traction n. 牵引,牵引力
  immense adj. 非常好的
  fiberglass n. 玻璃纤维
  aluminum n. 铝
  skatepark n. 滑板运动场地
  plywood n. 夹板
  durometer n. 硬度计
  terrain n. 地形
  handrail n. 栏杆,扶手
  stunt n. 绝技,惊人表演
  scrawl v. 乱涂,瞎画
  underbelly n. 物体的下方
  
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