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自然主义诗人作家:亨利·梭罗

来源: 时间:2008-03-14 13:46:12
  
  正如奥尔科特在其中提到,梭罗把他的家族姓氏发音成“梭尔——欧(THOR-eau)”,重读第一个音节而非最后的音节,这在当今是一个常见的错误。康科德的某个不同发音是“萨尔——欧(THUR-eau)”,就像英语单词“彻底的(thorough)”的发音。在外表上他并无吸引力,他有着一个被其称为“我最突出的特征”的鼻子,在《科德角》中他也这么说。有关梭罗的脸,纳撒尼尔·霍桑如此描写道:“(梭罗)简直丑得罪过,鼻子长,嘴巴怪,带着笨拙和粗俗,而礼貌谦逊的举止却和这样的外表很好地对应了起来。但是他的丑陋具有某种正直与和蔼可亲的风格,比美貌更适合他。”
  
  Thoreau was a philosopher of nature and its relation to the human condition. In his early years, he accepted the ideas of Transcendentalism, an eclectic idealist philosophy that included among its advocates Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott.
  
  梭罗是一名自然主义哲学家,而这和人类的境况相关。他早年接受了超越论的思想,一种折衷的理想主义哲学,接受这种思想的还包括该理论的提倡者拉尔夫·沃尔多·爱默生、玛格丽特·福勒以及布朗森·奥尔科特。
  
  After college, Thoreau taught school, wrote essays and poems for The Dial, and briefly attempted freelance writing in New York City. The death of his brother in 1842 was a profound emotional shock and may have influenced his decision to live with his parents and never to marry.
  
  大学毕业后,梭罗在学校教书,为《日规》撰写随笔和诗歌,而且在纽约进行自由撰稿的短暂尝试。1842年他兄弟的死是一次深刻的感情冲击,可能同时也影响了他的决定,使其和父母一起生活而且终生未娶。
  
  Thoreau embarked on a two-year experiment in simple living on July 4, 1845 when he moved to a second-growth forest around the shores of beautiful Walden Pond and lived in a self-built house on land owned by Emerson. The house was not in wilderness but at the edge of town, 1.5 miles from his family home. On a trip into town, he ran into the local tax collector who asked him to pay six years of delinquent poll taxes. Thoreau refused because of his opposition to the Mexican-American War and slavery, for which he spent a night in jail. His later essay on this experience, Civil Disobedience, influenced Leo Tolstoy, Mohandas Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr..
  
  梭罗于1845年7月4日开始两年的简单生活体验,当时他搬到一个环绕在美丽瓦尔登湖岸边的人造林,并住进爱默生田产上的一幢自建屋。这屋子并不在荒野中但是在城镇的郊区,距离他父母家1.5英里。一次他出行到城里,遇到一名当地收税员要求他支付六年的拖欠人头税。因为梭罗反对美墨战争(美国与墨西哥)和奴隶制度,所以他拒绝支付,而为此他坐了一夜的牢。他之后有关此经历的随笔《论公民的不服从》,影响了莫罕达斯·甘地、列夫·托尔斯泰以及小马丁·路德·金。
  
  In August of 1846, Thoreau briefly left Walden to make a trip to Mount Katahdin in Maine, a journey later recorded in "Ktaadn," the first part of The Maine Woods. At Walden Pond he completed a first draft of A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, describing his 1839 trip to the White Mountains with his now-deceased brother, John Thoreau Jr. When this book failed to find a publisher, Emerson urged Thoreau to publish at his own expense. He did so with Munroe, Emerson's own publisher, who did little to publicize the book. Its failure put Thoreau into debt that took years to pay off, and Emerson's flawed advice began to cause a schism between the friends that never entirely healed.
  
  1846年8月,梭罗暂时离开瓦尔登前往缅因州的卡塔丁山旅行,这稍后被记录在《缅因森林》的第一部分“卡塔丁”里。在瓦尔登湖他完成了《康考德和梅里马克河上的一周》的初稿,描述了他1839年和他而今已故的兄弟——小约翰·梭罗前往怀特山脉的旅行。当此书找不到出版商之时,爱默生怂恿梭罗自费出版。他这么做了,并与爱默生自己的出版商芒罗合作,而后者并没有为出版此书做什么。此次失败让梭罗陷入花了数年才偿清的债务之中,而爱默生的不妥建议开始导致了朋友间终未彻底解决的不和。
  
  Thoreau left Walden Pond on September 6, 1847. Over several years he worked off his debts and also continuously revised his manuscript. In 1854 he published Walden, or Life in the Woods, recounting the two years and two months he had spent at Walden Pond. The book compresses that time into a single calendar year, using the passage of four seasons to symbolize human development. Part memoir and part spiritual quest, Walden at first won few admirers, but today critics regard it as a classic American book that explores natural simplicity, harmony, and beauty as models for just social and cultural conditions.
  
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