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四月,在阳光下聆听——巴萨诺瓦

来源: 时间:2008-03-14 13:45:51
  
  Lush orchestral accompaniment is often associated with bossa nova's North American image as "elevator" or "lounge" music. While it is present, perhaps excessively, in much of Jobim's own recordings, it is rarely heard elsewhere.
  
  Structure 音乐结构
  Bossa nova is at its core a rhythm, and one based on the samba. Samba is in turn partially derived from European march music, and emphasis on the first beat carries through to bossa nova (to the degree that it is often notated in 2/4 time). When played on the guitar, the thumb plays the bass notes on 1 and 3, while the fingers pluck the chords in unison on 1 and 2, delayed on 3. Overall, the rhythm has a swaying rather than swinging (as in jazz) feel. As bossa nova composer Carlos Lyra describes it in his song "Influência do Jazz", the samba rhythm moves "side to side" while jazz moves "front to back".
  
  In terms of lyrical themes and length of songs (typically 2-4 minutes), bossa nova is very much a "popular music" style. However, the typical structure differs slightly from European and North American rock-based music's standard format of two verses followed by a bridge, and a closing verse; bossa nova songs usually have no more than two lyrical verses, and almost never a bridge. Some of João Gilberto's earliest recordings were less than 2 minutes long, and some had a single lyrical verse which is simply repeated.
  
  Origin of the term "bossa nova"
  "bossa nova"一词的由来
  Bossa Nova of course means "New Bossa", but according to Ruy Castro, author of Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced the World, the word "bossa" itself was "far from new" at the time of "Chega De Saudade," and had "been used by musicians since the days of yore to define someone who played or sang differently....In 1932, Noel Rosa used the word in a samba...which went O samba, a prontidão e outras bossas/São nossas coisas, são coisas nossas (Samba, empty pockets and other bossas/Are our specialities." Castro writes that an editor in Brazil, Moysés Fuks, in 1958 wrote a program for a show featuring Roberto Menescal and other performers, and billed it as a "bossa nova evening" Castro writes, "The origin of the expression has never been completely clarified."
  
  Keywords
  注释
  
  demographic adj. 人口的;人口统计的
  rapper n. 说唱音乐表演者或是爱好者
  hipster n. 爵士音乐迷;追逐时尚的人
  teenybopper n. 少年颓废派
  baby boomer 二战后1946至1964年婴儿潮期间出生的一代人
  lava lamp熔岩灯
  depiction n. 刻画;描绘
  bohemian adj. 波西米亚的;玩世不恭的
  complacence n. 自我满足;漠不关心
  uproar n. 骚动
  coup n. 政变
  precarious adj. 不稳定的
  drought-stricken adj. 遭旱灾的
  Tropicália巴西热带民歌运动
  MPB(Musica Popular Brasileira)巴西流行音乐
  repertoire n. 全部节目
  predominantly adv. 主要地;突出地
  cross-pollination n. 相互影响,相互启发
  percussion n. 打击乐器
  high-hat n. (爵士乐器)足踩钹;鼓钹
  rim n. 边,边缘
  mimic 模仿;摹拟
  tambourine n. 小手鼓
  orchestral adj. 管弦乐的
  verse n. 诗节;韵律
  lyrical adj. 抒情的
  
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